United States Navy SEALs

The United States Navy‘s Sea, Air, Land Teams, commonly known as the Navy SEALs, are the U.S. Navy’s principal special operations force and a part of the Naval Special Warfare Command and United States Special Operations Command.[3] The SEALs duty is to conduct small-unit maritime military operations which originate from, and return to a river, ocean, swamp, delta or coastline. SEALs can negotiate shallow water areas such as the Persian Gulf coastline, where large ships and submarines are limited due to depth.[4]

“SEAL” is always capitalized in reference to members of the Naval Special Warfare community. The Navy SEALs are trained to operate in all environments (Sea, Air, and Land) for which they are named. SEALs are also prepared to operate in climate extremes of scorching desert, freezing Arctic, and humid jungle. The SEALs current pursuit of elusive, dangerous and high-priority terrorist targets has them operating in remote, mountainous regions of Afghanistan, and in cities torn by factional violence. Historically the SEALs have always had “one foot in the water.” The reality, however, today is that they initiate lethal direct action strikes equally well from air and land.[4]

All SEALs are male members of the United States Navy.[4][5][6][7] The CIA‘s highly secretive Special Activities Division (SAD) and more specifically its elite Special Operations Group (SOG) recruits operators from the SEAL Teams.[8] Joint Navy SEALs and CIA operations go back to the famed MACV-SOG during the Vietnam War.[9]This cooperation still exists today and is seen in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.[10][11] Due to their reputation as one of the world’s premier special operations forces, SEAL operators routinely serve in allied SOF’s including the British Special Air Service, Special Boat Service and Polish GROM.[12

Origins

The modern day U.S. Navy SEALs can trace their roots to World War II.[4] The United States Navy recognized the need for the covert reconnaissance of landing beaches and coastal defenses. As a result, the Amphibious Scout and Raider School was established in 1942 at Fort Pierce, Florida.[7] The Scouts and Raiders were formed in September of that year, just nine months after the attack on Pearl Harbor, from the Observer Group, a joint U.S. Army-Marine-Navy unit

Scouts & Raiders

Recognizing the need for a beach reconnaissance force, a select group of Army and Navy personnel assembled at Amphibious Training Base, Little Creek, on August 15, 1942 to begin Amphibious Scouts and Raiders (joint) training. The Scouts and Raiders mission was to identify and reconnoiter the objective beach, maintain a position on the designated beach prior to a landing, and guide the assault waves to the landing beach.[4]

The first group included Phil H. Bucklew, the “Father of Naval Special Warfare,” after whom the Naval Special Warfare Center building is named. Commissioned in October 1942, this group saw combat in November 1942 during Operation torch on the North African coast. Scouts and Raiders also supported landings in Sicily,Salerno, Anzio, Normandy, and southern France.[15]

A second group of Scouts and Raiders, code-named Special Service Unit No. 1, was established on 7 July 1943, as a joint and combined operations force. The first mission, in September 1943, was at Finschafen on New Guinea. Later operations were at Gasmata, Arawe, Cape Gloucester, and the East and South coast of New Britain, all without any loss of personnel. Conflicts arose over operational matters, and all non-Navy personnel were reassigned. The unit, renamed 7th Amphibious Scouts, received a new mission, to go ashore with the assault boats, buoy channels, erect markers for the incoming craft, handle casualties, take offshore soundings, clear beach obstacles and maintain voice communications linking the troops ashore, incoming boats and nearby ships. The 7th Amphibious Scouts conducted operations in the Pacific for the duration of the conflict, participating in more than 40 landings.[4]

The third and final Scouts and Raiders organization operated in China. Scouts and Raiders were deployed to fight with the Sino-American Cooperative Organization, or SACO. To help bolster the work of SACO, Admiral Ernest J. King ordered that 120 officers and 900 men be trained for “Amphibious Raider” at the Scout and Raider school at Fort Pierce, Florida. They formed the core of what was envisioned as a “guerrilla amphibious organization of Americans and Chinese operating from coastal waters, lakes and rivers employing small steamboats and sampans.” While most Amphibious Raider forces remained at Camp Knox in Calcutta, three of the groups saw active service. They conducted a survey of the upper Yangtze River in the spring of 1945 and, disguised as coolies, conducted a detailed three-month survey of the Chinese coast from Shanghai to Kitchioh Wan, near Hong Kong.[4]

OSS Operational Swimmers

Some of the earliest World War II predecessors of the SEALs were the Operational Swimmers of the Office of Strategic Services, or OSS.[11] Many current SEAL missions were first assigned to them. OSS specialized in special operations, dropping operatives behind enemy lines to engage in organized guerrilla warfare as well as to gather information on such things as enemy resources and troop movements.[16] British Combined Operations veteran LCDR Wooley, of the Royal Navy, was placed in charge of the OSS Maritime Unit in June 1943. Their training started in November 1943 at Camp Pendleton, California, moved to Santa Catalina Island, California in January 1944, and finally moved to the warmer waters of The Bahamas in March 1944. Within the U.S. military, they pioneered flexible swimfins anddiving masks, closed-circuit diving equipment (under the direction of Dr. Christian J. Lambertsen),[16][17] the use of Swimmer Delivery Vehicles (a type of submersible), and combat swimming and limpet mine attacks.[11] In May 1944, Colonel “Wild Bill” Donovan, the head of the OSS, divided the unit into groups. He loaned Group 1, under Lieutenant Choate, to Admiral Nimitz, as a way to introduce the OSS into the Pacific theater. They became part of UDT-10 in July 1944. Five OSS men participated in the very first UDT submarine operation with the USS Burrfish in the Caroline Islands in August 1944.

Underwater Demolition Teams

UDT members using the casting technique from a speeding boat

On 23 November 1943, the U.S. Marine landing on Tarawa Atoll emphasized the need for hydrographic reconnaissance and underwater demolition of obstacles prior to any amphibious landing. The islands in this area have unpredictable tide changes and shallow reefs preventing the naval transport vessels from progressing. The first wave crossed the reef in Amtracs, but the second in Higgins boats were not as successful. They got stuck on a reef due to low tide. The Marines were forced to unload and wade to shore. This proved to be a daunting task and many Marines were killed or drowned before reaching the beach. Without support from the second wave the Marines in Amtracs were slaughtered on the beach. This was a valuable lesson that the Navy did not want to be repeated. After the Tarawa landing, Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner directed the formation of nine Underwater Demolition Teams. Thirty officers and 150 enlisted men were moved to the WaimānaloAmphibious Training Base to form the nucleus of a demolition training program. This group became Underwater Demolition Teams (UDT) ONE and TWO.[4]

The UDTs saw their first combat on 31 January 1944, during Operation Flintlock in the Marshall Islands. Flintlock became the real catalyst for the UDT training program in the Pacific Theater. In February 1944, the Naval Combat Demolition Training and Experimental Base was established at Kīhei, Maui, next to the Amphibious Base at Kamaole. Eventually, 34 UDT teams were established. Wearing swim suits, fins, and dive masks on combat operations, these “Naked Warriors” saw action across the Pacific in every major amphibious landing including: Eniwetok, Saipan, Guam, Tinian, Angaur, Ulithi, Peleliu, Leyte, Lingayen Gulf, Zambales, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, Labuan, Brunei Bay, and on 4 July 1945 at Balikpapan on Borneo, which was the last UDT demolition operation of the war. The rapid demobilization at the conclusion of the war reduced the number of active duty UDTs to two on each coast with a complement of seven officers and 45 enlisted men each.[7]

Pearl Harbor: Home Of The Seal Delivery Vehicle

Home of the Navy’s only SEAL Delivery Vehicle Team. The command conducts underwater delivery and insertion of SEALs using flooded mini-submarines.

COMNAVSPECWARCOM

Coronado, CA
Quarterdeck: (619) 437-2848
Public Affairs Office: (619) 522-2825

Component Commands:

CNSWG-1
Coronado, CA – Quarterdeck: (619) 437-3557
Logistics & Support Unit
Coronado, CA – Quarterdeck: (619) 665-4577

Sir Tom Jones

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Sir Thomas Jones Woodward,[1] OBE (born 7 June 1940), known by his stage name Tom Jones, is a Welsh singer. He became one of the most popular vocalists to emerge from the mid-1960s. Since then he has sung nearly every form of popular music – pop, rock, R&B, show tunes, country, dance, soul and gospel – and sold over 100 million records.

Jones has had thirty-six Top 40 hits in the United Kingdom and nineteen in the United States; some of his notable songs include “It’s Not Unusual“, “What’s New Pussycat“, “Delilah“, “Green, Green Grass of Home“, “She’s a Lady“, “Kiss” and “Sex Bomb“.[2][3]

Having been awarded an OBE in 1999, Jones received a knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II for “services to music” in 2006. Jones has received numerous other awards throughout his career, including the Grammy Award for Best New Artist in 1966, an MTV Video Music Award in 1989 and two Brit Awards – winning Best British Male, in 2000, and Outstanding Contribution to Music, in 2003.

 

Early life

Tom Jones was born Thomas Jones Woodward, at 57 Kingsland Terrace, Treforest, Pontypridd in Glamorgan, South Wales.[4][5][6] His parents were Thomas Woodward (died 5 October 1981), a coal miner, and Freda Jones (died 7 February 2003).[7] His paternal grandfather, James Woodward, was an ironmonger’s haulier from Gloucestershire, and his paternal grandmother was from Wiltshire. His maternal grandfather was Welsh, and his maternal grandmother, Ada Jones, was born in Pontypridd, to parents from Somerset and Wiltshire.[8]

Jones began singing at an early age: he would regularly sing at family gatherings, weddings and in his school choir. Jones did not like school or sports but gained confidence through his singing talent.[9] At 12 he was diagnosed with tuberculosis. Many years later he said: “I spent two years in bed recovering. It was the worst time of my life.” During convalescence he could do little else but listen to music and draw.[10]

Jones’ bluesy singing style developed out of the sound of American soul music. His early influences included blues and R&B singers Little Richard, Solomon Burke,Jackie Wilson and Brook Benton, as well as Elvis Presley, whom Jones idolised and with whom he would later become good friends.[11]

In March 1957 Jones married his high school girlfriend, Melinda Trenchard when they were expecting a child together, both aged 16. The couple’s son, Mark, was born in the month following their wedding. To support his young family Jones took a job working in a glove factory and was later employed in construction.[12]

Career

Rise to fame

Jones, whose voice has been described as a “full-throated, robust baritone“,[13] became the frontman for Tommy Scott and the Senators, a Welsh beat group, in 1963. They soon gained a local following and reputation in South Wales. In 1964 the group recorded several solo tracks with producer Joe Meek, who took them to various labels, but they had little success. Later that year Decca producer Peter Sullivan saw Tommy Scott and the Senators performing in a club and directed them to manager Phil Solomon, but the partnership was short-lived.

The group continued to play gigs at dance halls and working men’s clubs in South Wales and one night, at the Top Hat in Cwmtillery, Wales, Jones was spotted byGordon Mills, a London-based manager who originally hailed from South Wales himself. Mills became Jones’ manager and took the young singer to London, and also renamed him Tom Jones,[14] to exploit the popularity of the Academy Award winning 1963 film.[15]

Eventually Mills got Jones a recording contract with Decca. His first single, “Chills and Fever”, was released in late 1964. It did not chart, but the follow-up, “It’s Not Unusual” became an international hit after offshore pirate radio station Radio Caroline promoted it. The following year would be the most prominent of Jones’s career, making him one of the most popular vocalists of the British Invasion. In early 1965 “It’s Not Unusual” reached number one in the United Kingdom and the top ten in the United States. During 1965 Mills secured a number of film themes for Jones to record including the themes for the film What’s New Pussycat? (written byBurt Bacharach and Hal David) and for the James Bond film Thunderball.[16] Jones was also awarded the Grammy Award for Best New Artist for 1966.[17] In Hollywood, Jones met Elvis Presley for the first time who he recalls singing his song as he walked towards him on set.

In 1966 Jones’ popularity began to slip somewhat, causing Mills to reshape the singer’s image into that of a crooner. Jones also began to sing material that appealed to a wider audience such as the big country hit “Green, Green Grass of Home“. The strategy worked and Jones returned to the top of the charts in the United Kingdom and began hitting the Top 40 again in the United States. For the remainder of the decade he scored a string of hits on both sides of the Atlantic.[12][18][19]

Las Vegas

In 1967 Jones performed in Las Vegas for the first time, at the Flamingo.[16] His performances and style of dress (increasingly featuring his open, half-unbuttoned shirts and tight trousers) became part of his stage act. He soon chose to record less, instead concentrating on his lucrative club performances. At Caesars Palacehis shows were a knicker-hurling frenzy of sexually charged adulation and good-time entertainment. Women started throwing hotel room keys onto the stage. Jones and his idol Elvis Presley met in 1965 at the Paramount film stage, when Elvis was filming Paradise, Hawaiian Style.[16] They became good friends, spending more and more time together in Las Vegas and duetting until the early hours at Presley’s private Las Vegas suite. The friendship endured until Presley’s death in 1977.[16]Jones’ guitarist between 1969 and 1974 was Big Jim Sullivan, who also met and formed a friendship with Presley.

Jones played at least one week in Las Vegas every year until 2011.

THE GREAT WHITE SHARK

Great White Sharks breach to hunt — with split-second timing they grab their prey in one swift snatch. Follow the whole breaching action in this slideshow.

Sharks are much older than dinosaurs. Their ancestry dates back more than 400 million years, and they are one of evolution’s greatest success stories. These animals are uniquely adapted to their ocean environment with six highly refined senses of smell, hearing, touch, taste, sight, and even electromagnetism. As the top predators in the ocean, great white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) face only one real threat to their survival: us. The assaults are many. By-catch: the accidental killing of sharks by fishermen’s longlines and trawlers. Illegal poaching: selling shark fins for soup. Illegal hunting: sportsfishing for shark jaws as trophies.Nets: placed along coastlines to keep sharks away from beaches. Pollution: toxins and heavy metals that build up in the shark’s body. In some areas great white populations have plummeted by over 70%. If not stopped, it could lead to the extinction of this ancient species.

For more about all shark species go to our shark overview.

Science

Human Connections

Great white sharks have many more reasons to fear people than people have to fear them. Thousands of sharks are killed every year especially for shark fin soup.

Ebola virus disease

The Ebola virus has now claimed nearly 4,000 lives during the current epidemic in West Africa, the largest outbreak since the virus was discovered nearly 40 years ago.

According to the World Health Organization, more than 8,000 people have been infected during the outbreak.

What is Ebola?

Ebola is a serious infectious illness which often proves fatal. Different strains kill between 50% and 90% of those infected.

The disease is caused by the Ebola virus, which is thought to have originated in fruit bats.

Ebola was first detected in 1976 in an outbreak near the Ebola River in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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How is the disease caught and spread?

Girls look at a Unicef poster on how to prevent the spread of EbolaGirls look at a Unicef poster on how to prevent the spread of Ebola

People are infected when they have direct contact through broken skin, or the mouth and nose, with the blood, vomit, faeces or bodily fluids of someone with Ebola.

The virus can be present in urine and semen too.

Infection may also occur through direct contact with contaminated bedding, clothing and surfaces – but only through broken skin.

The disease is not airborne, like flu. Very close direct contact with an infected person is required for the virus to be passed to another person.

It can take up anything from two to 21 days for humans with the virus to show symptoms.

People are not infectious until the symptoms develop.

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What are the symptoms?

Ebola virusesThe Ebola virus causes a range of painful and debilitating symptoms

The early symptoms are a sudden fever, muscle pain, fatigue, headache and sore throat.

This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, a rash and bleeding – both internal and external – which can be seen in the gums, eyes, nose and in the stools.

Patients tend to die from multiple organ failure or dehydration.

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How is it treated?

A vaccine trial in the USEbola vaccines are being tested on humans in trials in the US and the UK

There is no proven cure for Ebola.

Severely ill patients need to be rehydrated quickly using intravenous fluids. They should be isolated from other people and given intensive care by medical experts.

Potential vaccines are being tested. If the trials are successful they would be used to protect healthcare workers first.

Experimental drugs such as ZMapp have also been used, but they have not saved all patients.

Blood transfusions from survivors are also being tried as a potential therapy.

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Who is at risk?

Doctors wearing personal protective equipment outside an Ebola treatment unit in NigeriaDoctors wearing protective equipment outside an Ebola treatment unit in Nigeria

Anyone in close contact with patients with Ebola is at risk.

Healthcare workers treating patients, including doctors and nurses, are using protective clothing such as full-body suits and goggles, but hundreds have still died. They are at high risk.

Family members of patients are also at risk. In West African funerals, it is traditional for mourners to have direct contact with the body of the dead person, washing and embracing them before burial.

But the Ebola virus is still dangerous and present in the body after death. Prompt and safe burials are now being urged.

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Where is Ebola a problem?

A woman A woman suspected of having Ebola virus cries outside a hospital in Sierra Leone.

Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone in West Africa are the countries worst affected by this outbreak, which came to light in March 2014.

There have also been a small number of cases in Nigeria and Senegal, and one imported case in the US. There is also a confirmed case of Ebola in Spain.

All are linked to the current outbreak.

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Why is this outbreak particularly bad?

A health worker is decontaminated at a treatment centre Health workers have been brought into affected countries to help treat patients with Ebola

The virus has taken hold in major urban areas this time as opposed to remote, rural areas. In towns and cities which are heavily populated, people move around more and the disease is more easily spread.

Although the early cases were in Guinea, the virus quickly spread across borders to neighbouring Sierra Leone and Liberia, making the disease more difficult to contain.

The countries most severely affected by the disease in West Africa also have weak health systems. They are short of qualified doctors and nurses, and lack the appropriate equipment and resources to combat the virus, unlike in the UK.

As a result, this is the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak since the virus was discovered.

There have been more cases and deaths in this one than all other outbreaks combined.

The 9 Biggest Myths About ISIS

Myth #1: ISIS is crazy and irrational

If you want to understand the Islamic State, better known as ISIS, the first thing you have to know about them is that they are not crazy. Murderous adherents to a violent medieval ideology, sure. But not insane.

Look at the history of ISIS’s rise in Iraq and Syria. From the mid-2000s through today, ISIS and its predecessor group, al-Qaeda in Iraq, have had one clear goal: to establish a caliphate governed by an extremist interpretation of Islamic law. ISIS developed strategies for accomplishing that goal — for instance, exploiting popular discontent among non-extremist Sunni Iraqis with their Shia-dominated government. Its tactics have evolved over the course of time in response to military defeats (as in 2008 in Iraq) and new opportunities (the Syrian civil war). As Yale political scientist Stathis Kalyvasexplains, in pure strategic terms, ISIS is acting similarly to revolutionary militant groups around the world — not in an especially crazy or uniquely “Islamist” way.

bbc ISIS map june

ISIS controlled territory in June. BBC

The point is that, while individual members of ISIS show every indication of espousing a crazed ideology and committing psychopathically violent acts, in the aggregate ISIS acts as a rational strategic enterprise. Their violence is, in broad terms, not random — it is targeted to weaken their enemies and strengthen ISIS’ hold on territory, in part by terrorizing the people it wishes to rule over.

Understanding that ISIS is at least on some level rational is necessary to make any sense of the group’s behavior. If all ISIS wanted to was kill infidels, why would they ally themselves with ex-Saddam Sunni secularist militias? If ISIS were totally crazy, how could they build a self-sustaining revenue stream from oil and organized crime rackets? If ISIS only cared about forcing people to obey Islamic law, why would they have sponsored children’s festivals and medical clinics in the Syrian territory they control? (To be clear, it is not out of their love for children, whom they are also happy to murder, but a calculated desire to establish control.)

This isn’t to minimize ISIS’ barbarity. They’ve launched genocidal campaigns against Iraq’s Yazidis and Christians. They’ve slaughtered thousands of innocents, Shia and Sunni alike. But they pursue these horrible ends deliberately and strategically. And that’s what really makes them scary.

Myth #2: People support ISIS because they like its radical form of Islam

You have probably heard that ISIS has a degree of popular support among some Iraqi and Syrian Sunni Muslims. That’s true: without it, the group would collapse. People sometimes assume that this says something about Islam itself: that the religion is intrinsically violent, or that Sunnis would support the group because they accept ISIS’s radical interpretation of the Koran.

That’s all wrong, and misses one of the most crucial points about ISIS: the foundation of its power comes from politics, not religion.

Let’s be clear: virtually all Muslims reject ISIS’ view of their faith. Poll after poll showsthat violent Islamist extremism and especially al-Qaeda are deeply unpopular in Muslim-majority countries. The bulk of ISIS’ victims are Muslims — many of them Sunnis (ISIS is itself Sunni). A popular revolt among Iraqi Sunnis, beginning around 2006, played a huge role in defeating ISIS’s predecessor group, al-Qaeda in Iraq. That revolt was inspired, at least in part, by anger at ISIS’s attempt to impose its vision of Islam on Muslims who disagree.

iraqi aid recipients displaced ISIS

Iraqis displaced by ISIS collect Red Cross aid. Haidar Hamdani/AFP/Getty Images

ISIS’s vision of Muslim life is pretty alien to actual Islamic tradition. Fundamentalist Islam — like most religious fundamentalisms — is a modern phenomenon. Fundamentalist groups, frustrated with modern politics, harken back to an idealized Islamic past that never actually existed. The al-Qaeda strain of violent radicalism owes more to 20th century writers like Egyptian Muslim Brother Sayyid Qutb than the actual post-Muhammed caliphate.

So if Sunnis disagree with ISIS’ theology and don’t like living under its rule, why do some of them seem to support ISIS? It’s all about politics. Both Syria and Iraq have Shia governments. Sunni Muslims aren’t well-represented in either system, and are often actively repressed. Legitimate dissent is often met with violence: Bashar al-Assad gunned down protesters in the streets during the 2011 Arab Spring demonstrations, and Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki reacted violently a 2013 Sunni protest movement as well.

So Sunnis understandably feel oppressed and out of options. Some, then, seem to be willing to wait and see if life under their fellow Sunnis in ISIS is any worse than it was before. ISIS, for its part, appears to be attempting to exploit this concern: that’s why it’s set up community, child-care, and medical services in some of the Sunni communities it controls.

That doesn’t mean ISIS is morally better than Assad or Maliki: they group is still hyper-violent and genocidal. It’s just that outreach to Sunnis is part of their politico-military strategy.

Myth #3: ISIS is part of al-Qaeda

The key thing to understand about ISIS and al-Qaeda is that they are competitors, not allies, and certainly not part of the same larger group.

ISIS used to be al-Qaeda in Iraq. But the group split apart from al-Qaeda in February 2014 because it wouldn’t listen to al-Qaeda HQ’s commands, including orders to curtail its violence against civilians. (That’s right: it was too violent for al-Qaeda.) This ISIS-AQ divorce is a key reason why ISIS is so unremittingly violent, yet many people still lump the two groups together.

For years, al-Qaeda was the clear leader of the global jihadist movement. The loose network of militant groups, internet forums, and “lone wolf” individuals saw al-Qaeda as the gold standard — and many pledged allegiance to it or established some kind of junior-partner working relationship.

iraqi jihadis

Unidentified Iraqi militants. STR/AFP/Getty Images

When ISIS broke off, it upended everything. By taking a chunk of territory the size of Belgium in the heart of the Arab world, ISIS had come much closer to the end-goal of an Islamic caliphate than al-Qaeda ever did. All of a sudden, it didn’t seem so clear that Islamist groups around the world should pledge themselves to al-Qaeda. ISIS fought openly with Jabhat al-Nusra, which is al-Qaeda’s Syria branch — and outperformed it on the battlefield. Today, ISIS controls far more territory in Syria than Jabhat.

This ideological competition drives ISIS to be more violent. “They’re in competition with al-Qaeda, and they want to be the leader,” JM Berger, the editor of Intelwire and an expert on violent extremism, said. According to Berger, one way they do that is by broadcasting images of their military prowess worldwide. In the sick, screwed up world of Islamic extremism, images of massacres are a show of strength.

When ISIS executed American journalist James Foley and put the video on YouTube, or when it declared its intention to wipe out Iraq’s Christians and Yazidis, it’s not doing it just because they can, although among individual militants indulging a sick desire is certainly part of it. At a broader level, this part of ISIS’s plan to beat al-Qaeda and spread the ISIS brand globally.

The worst part: There’s some evidence this plan is working. Even before ISIS’s rapid advance in June, ISIS was wresting groups in Tunisia and Libya away from al-Qaeda’s allegiance to their own. There have been ISIS-linked suicide bombings as far afield as Malyasia.

Myth #4: ISIS is a Syrian rebel group

It is true that ISIS opposes Bashar al-Assad’s government in Syria, and the two constantly fight one another in Syria. But calling ISIS a “Syrian rebel group” misses two critical facts about ISIS. First, it’s a transnational organization, not rooted in any one country, with lots of fighters who come from outside the country and are motivated by global jihadist aims as well as the Syrian war specifically. Second, Assad and ISIS are not-so-secretly helping each other out in some crucial ways, even as they fight. ISIS and Assad are frenemies, not full-on opponents.

For one thing, ISIS predated the Syrian civil war. It started as al-Qaeda in Iraq in the mid-2000s and, after that group was defeated by Iraqis and American forces around 2008, reformed in the same country. Between 2008 and 2011, ISIS rebuilt itself out of former prisoners and  ex-Saddam era Iraqi army officers. ISIS did not grow out of the Syrian rebellion: it took advantage of it.

Now, it’s true the war in Syria benefitted ISIS tremendously. It allowed ISIS to get battlefield experience, attracted a ton of financial support from Gulf states and private donors looking to oust Assad, and a crucial safe haven in eastern Syria. ISIS also absorbed a lot of recruits from Syrian rebel groups — illustrating, incidentally, why arming the “good” Syrian rebels probably wouldn’t have destroyed ISIS.

Syrian rebel aleppo

A Syrian rebel stands in the street in Aleppo. Ahmed Deeb/AFP/Getty Images

In a weird way, this has all benefitted Assad. The Syrian dictator has vigorously pursued a divide-and-conquer strategy during the war. He’s tried hard to push the sectarian angle of the civil war, making it into a life-or-death struggle for his Alawite (Shia) and Christian supporters against the Sunni majority. ISIS’ extremism has helped convince Alawites that defecting the rebels means the destruction of their homes and communities.

And Assad has also used ISIS to divide his other opponents: the moderate Free Syrian Army, other Islamist groups, and the United States. One way he’s done that is by focusing Syria’s military efforts on the moderate Syrian rebels, leaving ISIS relatively unscathed. By allowing ISIS and other Islamist groups to become stronger at the expensive of other rebels, Assad made it much harder for the US to intervene against him without benefitting the rebels. And ISIS and moderate rebels have begun fighting against one another, further dividing the war in a way that’s beneficial to Assad.

In essence, Assad and ISIS seem to have made an implicit deal: ISIS temporarily gets a relatively free ride in some chunks of Syria, while Assad gets to weaken his other opponents. The two sides still hate each other, but both benefit from the status quo.

Myth #5: ISIS is only strong because of Iraqi Prime Minister Maliki

There’s a theory that Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki is solely, or mainly, responsible for ISIS’s resurgence in 2014. It’s true that Maliki’s policies enabled ISIS’s rise. But blaming him alone misses the real drivers of sectarianism in Iraq — and the complicated, multi-faceted sources of support ISIS enjoys.

Maliki did a number of things that unintentionally enabled ISIS’ rise. He used Iraq’s counterterrorism laws to imprison Sunni dissenters. He exploited laws that prohibit Saddam-era officials from holding office (a number of those officials had been Sunni) to boot Sunnis out of the upper echelons of the government and military. He arrested peaceful Sunni protestors, and aligned himself with non-governmental Shia militias that had slaughtered Sunnis during the post-invasion civil war. And that’s only a partial list of Maliki policies that turned Sunnis against the Iraqi central government, and thus toward ISIS.

But it is simply incorrect to assign most of the blame for ISIS’s rise to Maliki. For one thing, Sunni anger at Iraq’s government, a quasi-democracy that empowers the Shia majority, runs much deeper than this one man. “Even if Maliki weren’t in power, there are some Sunni grievances that any Shia government would have problems with,” Kirk Sowell, a risk consultant and full-time Iraq watcher, says.

maliki livier Douliery-Pool/Getty Images

Maliki. Olivier Douliery-Pool/Getty Images

To take one example, many Sunnis wrongly believe that they’re the largest demographic group in Iraq. This belief, spread during Saddam’s time to justify Sunni minority rule, leads Sunnis to see any government they don’t head up as fundamentally unjust. Neither Maliki nor his also-Shia successor, current Prime Minister-delegate Haider al-Abadi, can fix that.

More to the point, ISIS isn’t just an Iraqi problem. Its base in Syria today is just as, if not more, important than the land it controls in Iraq. They’ve gotten funding from Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Kuwait, and wink-wink-nudge-nudge help from Syria’s Bashar al-Assad.

The really important takeaway here is that Maliki’s political defeat does not mean ISIS will wither away, nor that Baghdad political reforms could solve this problem alone. The Abadi government will need to undertake deep, structural reforms if it wants to address Sunni grievances. The Sunni community will have to reject ISIS and come to terms with the Shia majority. And even if all of that happens, ISIS will still have its base in Syria.

Myth #6: ISIS is afraid of female soldiers

bizarre meme going around claims that ISIS is really afraid of fighting all-female Kurdish military units. The theory is that ISIS fighters believe that if a woman kills you, you don’t get to go to paradise.

The truth is that ISIS’ approach to women is much more complicated — and troubling — than Western stereotypes about Islamists would suggest. ISIS has its own female brigades, and the group uses them to enforce its deeply misogynistic ideology.

The “ISIS is afraid of female fighters” theory comes from a stray quote in a Wall Street Journal piece about Kurdish advances against ISIS. It quotes a female Kurdish soldier as saying “the jihadists don’t like fighting women, because if they’re killed by a female, they think they won’t go to heaven.” Note that it’s not an ISIS fighter, a scholar, or necessarily someone who’s interrogated an ISIS fighter: just a random Kurdish soldier, who may not be super-familiar with ISIS’s ideology.

What we actually know about ISIS’s approach to women, however, paints a rather different picture. ISIS has all-female battalions, called “al-Khansaa” and “Umm al-Rayan,” that operate in Syria. ISIS female fighters wear full burqas and carry rifles; they exist to force other women to comply with ISIS’s vision of sharia law. “ISIS created [them] to terrorize women,” Abu al-Hamza, a local, media activist, said in an interview with Syria Deeply.

ISIS’s use of women is part of a rising trend of jihadist women claiming roles in violent Islamic extremist groups. “There is a process of female emancipation taking place in the jihadi movement, albeit a very limited (and morbid) one,” Thomas Hegghammer, an expert on violent Islamism at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, told The Atlantic. “Many of them are eager to portray themselves as strong women and often make fun of the Western stereotype of ‘the oppressed Muslim woman.'”

ISIS is dedicated to oppressing women, and uses rape as a weapon to terrify the population into submission in territory it controls. Somehow, perversely, it has managed to enlist large numbers of women to help in that awful effort.

Myth #7: The US can destroy ISIS

You’ve probably heard it a million times: if only the United States stepped up its bombing campaign in Iraq, launched a combing campaign in Syria, or did more to help moderate Syrian rebels, it could destroy ISIS. The fact that it hasn’t, in this telling, is a damning indictment of President Obama’s feckless foreign policy.

The truth is even more disappointing: There is no magic American bullet that could fix the ISIS problem. Even an intensive, decades-long American ground effort — something that is politically not on the table, anyways — might only make the problem worse. The reason is that ISIS’s presence in Iraq and Syria is fundamentally a political problem, not a military one.

American aircraft are very good at hitting ISIS targets out in the open: on roads or in the desert, for example. That’s why US air support was extremely effective in clearing a path for Kurdish and Iraqi forces to retake the Mosul dam in mid-August.

But American airpower is much less useful in dense urban combat, where it’s also likely to cause unacceptable amounts of civilian casualties. In response to a stepped-up American bombing campaign, ISIS could hunker down in fortified city positions. That would force the Iraqi army and Kurdish forces to engage in bloody street-to-street combat. Historically, the Iraqi army has a bad track record in those fights. It spent a good chunk of early 2014 trying to dislodge ISIS from Fallujah, a city near Baghdad. It failed to permanently push them out, and killed a lot of Sunni civilians in the process.

What if the US also stepped up its campaign in Syria, arming the Syrian rebels and bombing ISIS positions? A pretty comprehensive review of research on arming rebels, by George Washington University’s Marc Lynch, suggests that wouldn’t have helpedeven back at the beginning of the civil war. The “moderate” Syrian rebels are too diffuse, and fighters shift in and out of alliances with ISIS and other radical Islamists.

A US soldier with an Iraqi child in Baghdad, 2008. Mauricio Lima/AFP/Getty Images

A US soldier with an Iraqi child in Baghdad, 2008. Mauricio Lima/AFP/Getty Images

If the US wanted to intervene in Syria against ISIS today, short of a full invasion, it would somehow need to enlist either Syrian leader Bashar al-Assad, who benefits from ISIS’s existence, or the moderate Syrian rebels, who are disorganized and hard-pressed by Assad already, to coordinate a major offensive. That seems improbable, to say the least.

Even if the United States reinvaded Iraq to destroy ISIS — which there is no indication it would do — there’s no guarantee that even this would succeed. The United States did defeat al-Qaeda in Iraq in the late-2000s, but it had lots of Iraqi help. The Bush administration’s 2007 troop surge would have failed if the Sunni population wasn’t already turning against al-Qaeda there.

“I take the somewhat modest position that the action of 6 million Iraqis may be more important than those of 30,000 American troops and one very talented general,” Doug Ollivant, the National Security Adviser for Iraq from 2005 to 2009, told me. Without changing Sunni views of ISIS and the Iraqi government, a stepped-up US ground presence might only further infuriate the Sunni population.

The key structural causes of ISIS’s rise, the multi-sided Syrian war and Iraqi sectarian tension, cannot be solved by American bombs alone. The US can block ISIS’s advances in some places, as it is doing in Iraqi Kurdistan, but eliminating ISIS is outside its power.

Myth #8: ISIS will self-destruct on its own

You occasionally hear, especially from supporters of the Obama administration’s cautious policy, that ISIS will eventually destroy itself. ISIS’s view of Islamic law is so harsh that no population would want to live under it for long, so a Sunni revolt against ISIS is inevitable. And ISIS will overreach: its desire to expand to new territory exceeds its actual military power, meaning that a devastating counterattack is inevitable.

This is certainly possible. But ISIS is not headed in that direction yet. That’s because ISIS is both smarter and stronger than many people give it credit for.

ISIS learned from the defeat of al-Qaeda in Iraq, its predecessor group. Though ISIS still insists on imposing its extremist interpretation of Islamic law in the territory it controls, it also sets up institutions that look a lot like a proto-government. They’ve installed health care clinics, run public forums where ISIS operatives socialize with adults, held activities for children, policed neighborhoods, and collected taxes.

Shia militias Ahmed al-Rubaye/AFP/Getty Images

Shia Iraqi militias. Ahmed al-Rubaye/AFP/Getty Images

The point of this, Washington Institute fellow Aaron Zelin wrote in September 2013, is to “lay the groundwork for a future Islamic state by gradually socializing Syrians to the concept.” According to Zelin, “ISIS has shown that it wants to avoid repeating the mistakes that its predecessors made in Iraq.” Since occupying Mosul in June, Iraq’s second-largest city, ISIS’s behavior has been similar (though not identical).

ISIS, then, is balancing its ideological desire to be brutal against its strategic imperative to maintain the support of local populations. It’s still as evil as it always was — just smarter about it.

To make matters worse, ISIS has never been stronger in military terms. The incorporation of former officers with Saddam-era Iraq, plus years of fighting in Syria, has made ISIS more tactically astute than most of its battlefield opponents. In June, it captured enormous amounts of advanced American weaponry dropped by the retreating Iraqi army. And its ranks have swelled in the wake of all of its victories: one estimate, from the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, claimed that ISIS recruited6,000 fighters in July 2014 alone. That’s obviously a ballpark estimate, but it almost certainly reflects real growth inside ISIS.

The bottom line: ISIS does not appear at all bound to simply fall apart on its own. To defeat the group, Iraqis and Syrians would need to do something done to separate ISIS from its base of support in Iraq and Syria. And ISIS needs to be broken on the battlefield, if only to stop the recruiting drive created by its aura of invincibility.

Myth #9: ISIS is invincible

Reading the news of ISIS’s conquests in Iraq and Syria, and even its recent foray into Lebanon, you might get the sense that ISIS is unstoppable. That it’ll sweep Iraq, and really, truly, establish an extremist Islamic state in Iraq and eastern Syria.

This isn’t true. ISIS is smarter and more effective than it used to be, and it’s too strong to collapse on its own, but it’s still quite vulnerable. The Iraqi government, with Kurdish and American help, really could make major inroads against ISIS.

In June, when ISIS was sweeping Iraq, there were panicked predictions that Baghdad was about to fall to ISIS’s advance. It didn’t. ISIS didn’t even try to take the city, likely because it knew it couldn’t dislodge the huge concentrations of Iraqi troops there — or hold a majority-Shia city that would never accept it.

Iraqi demographics place a natural limit on ISIS’s advance. Even high-end estimates of ISIS’s strength — 50,000 troops — make it much smaller than the Iraqi army or Kurdish peshmerga. It’d be impossible for ISIS to take and hold majority Shia areas, where they’d be totally unable to build popular support. The Islamic State’s borders in Iraq are limited to northern and western, Arab-majority, Sunni-majority Iraq.

That’s a damning problem for ISIS. All of the major oil wells, which provide 95 percent of Iraq’s GDP, are in southern Iraq or Kurdish-held territory in the northeast. ISIS can’t advance on the Shia south, and a joint US-Kurdish campaign is reversing its gains in Kurdistan. ISIS has huge financial reserves for a militant group — maybe up to $1 billion dollars. But that’s a relatively small amount for a government, and any attempt to actually govern northwestern Iraq in the long run would lead to economic disaster.

A guard at a Kurdish oil refinery. Safin Hamed/AFP/Getty Images

A guard at a Kurdish oil facility. Safin Hamed/AFP/Getty Images

“It’d be a permanent downward economic spiral — like Gaza, basically,” Kirk Sowell, a risk analyst and Iraq expert, says. An ISIS mini-state is just not sustainable.

When you pair the inevitable economic crisis in ISIS-held Iraq with ISIS’s brutal legal system, it seems like Sunnis will eventually tire of the group. That discontent may not be enough on its own to end the group’s rule, especially if it still believes the Iraqi central government would be worse for them. But it creates an opening for Iraqi Prime Minister-delegate Haider al-Abadi to reach out to disaffected Sunnis. He might be able to make allies among Sunni tribal militias.

Meanwhile, ISIS may alienate some its core Iraqi allies: militias who support a Saddam-style Sunni dictatorship. They’re generally secular and no fans of ISIS’s vision of Islamic law, and are only allied with it to fight the government. If ISIS’s Sunni allies turn against it, and the government does a better job making its rule look attractive, ISIS may lose the Sunni population — and most of its gains in northern Iraq. Again, that’s not inevitable, and will require some tough political changes in Baghdad, but the point is that ISIS is far from invincible.

ISIS’s hold in Syria, though, would be much, much harder to dislodge. It’s hard to imagine either Assad or moderate anti-Assad rebels mounting an effective military campaign against ISIS in the near term. But rolling back ISIS in Iraq, and containing it to Syria, would be a major victory, though an incomplete one as it would leave ISIS with a chunk of Syria. Still, this would limit the group’s reach in the Middle East and blunt its global appeal. And when Syria’s civil war finally does end, whenever that happens, eliminating ISIS will be the winning side’s first priority.

Brazil Fifa World Cup = Deep Corruption

 

 Two referees at World Cup suspected of match-fixing…but FIFA        only found out about past allegations after tournament started

  • Suspicions relate to past games involving officials that had unusual in-game incidents and high betting
  • Information came to light after officials had taken charge of games in Brazil
  • World Cup already rocked by allegations of corruption in Cameroon’s 4-0 win over Croatia
  • FIFA insist integrity of World Cup has not been damaged

Questions: Two World Cup officials are under suspicion but there are no suggestions Ravshan Irmatov is one of them

But it is understood that by the time the latest information filtered up to FIFA’s security hierarchy in Brazil, the two referees in question had already officiated matches.

The suspicions surrounding the officials are linked to historic games involving the ‘double whammy’ identifiers of unusual in-game incidents matched with highly unusual betting.

Poor: Germany coach Joachim Low believes the level of officiating at the World Cup has been sub-standard

FIFA responded to Mail on Sunday questions about the allegedly corrupt officials by saying: ‘It is important to note that we have no indications that the integrity of the FIFA World Cup has been compromised.’

There was no denial the information had been received or that it was considered serious.

‘Generally speaking, we are not in a position to comment or provide information on any match-manipulation investigations that are ongoing so as not to compromise investigations, nor do we provide any comments as to whether or not any investigations are underway,’ said a spokesman.

Focused: Germany striker Thomas Muller is ready to strike a ball during training

The tournament has already been rocked by allegations of fixing after German magazine Der Spiegel reported that convicted match-fixer Wilson Raj Perumal had told them before Cameroon’s group match with Croatia that Croatia would win 4-0 and Cameroon would have a man sent off. Perumal denies telling Der Spiegel this, saying he spoke to them after the match.

FIFA have publicly requested that Der Spiegel supply evidence of their claims, with FIFA director of security, Ralf Mutschke, saying the allegations ‘put the integrity of FIFA World Cup matches in question, which is a serious allegation’

One source suggested to the Mail on Sunday that Der Spiegel may have been hoaxed by somebody on Facebook pretending to be Perumal. Der Spiegel has yet to hand any evidence to FIFA.

Seeing red: Alex Song was sent off in Cameroon's 4-0 defeat to Croatia, leading to suspicions about the game

On the subject of the allegedly corrupt referees who have been working at Brazil 2014, a FIFA spokesman told the Mail on Sunday that any action taken against a corrupt party would become public only after such action had been sanctioned by various FIFA committees.

‘It would be only after a decision has been taken by the FIFA Disciplinary Committee or FIFA Ethics Committee and first notified to the parties concerned that FIFA would be in a position to communicate the contents of that decision publicly,’ said a spokesman.

Applaud: Muller (second left) claps his team-mates during their training session ahead of Brazil clash

‘FIFA continue to work closely with law enforcement agencies as well as the respective public authorities and other sports organisations on a national, regional and global level to tackle the issue of match manipulation.

‘And we encourage that anyone with information about any suspicious matches should contact relevant authorities such as through FIFA’s integrity hotline or email address and confidential reporting system.’

 
La mano de dios Maradona

Lynyrd Skynyrd The American Way

Lynyrd Skynyrd (pronounced /ˌlɛnərd ˈskɪnərd/) is an American rockband best known for popularizing the southern hard-rock genre during the 1970s. Originally formed in 1966 as the The Pretty Ones inJacksonville, Florida, they then went through two name changes: The Noble Five and One Percent, before coming up with Lynyrd Skynyrd in 1969. The band rose to worldwide recognition on the basis of its driving live performances and signature tunes “Sweet Home Alabama” and “Free Bird“. At the peak of their success, three members died in anairplane crash in 1977, putting an abrupt end to the band’s most popular incarnation.

The surviving band members re-formed in 1988 for a reunion tour with lead vocalist Johnny Van Zant, the younger brother of lead singer and founder Ronnie Van Zant. The re-formed band continues to tour and record with co-founding member Gary Rossington and core members Johnny Van Zant, along with guitarist Rickey Medlocke, who recorded with the band for a short time in the early 1970s. Drummer Michael Cartellone has recorded and toured with the band since 1999. Lynyrd Skynyrd was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on March 13, 2006.[1]

Early years[edit]

In the summer of 1966, teenage friends Ronnie Van ZantAllen Collins, and Gary Rossington formed the earliest incarnation of the band inJacksonville, Florida as My Backyard. The band then changed its name to The Noble Five.[2] when Larry Junstrom and Bob Burnsjoined.[citation needed] The band used different names before using One Percent during 1968.[2]

In 1969, Van Zant sought a new name. The group settled on Leonard Skinnerd, a mocking tribute to a physical-education teacher at Robert E. Lee High SchoolLeonard Skinner,[3] who was notorious for strictly enforcing the school’s policy against boys having long hair.[4][5] Rossington dropped out of school, tired of being hassled about his hair.[6] The more distinctive spelling was being used at least as early as 1970. Despite their high school acrimony, the band developed a friendlier relationship with Skinner in later years, and invited him to introduce them at a concert in the Jacksonville Memorial Coliseum.[7] Skinner also allowed the band to use a photo of his Leonard Skinner Realty sign for the inside of their third album.[8]

In 1970, Pat Armstrong, a Jacksonville native and partner in Macon-based Hustlers Inc. with Phil Walden‘s younger brother,Alan Walden, became the band’s managers. Armstrong left Hustlers shortly thereafter to start his own agency. Walden stayed with the band until 1974, when management was turned over to Peter Rudge. The band continued to perform throughout the South in the early 1970s, further developing their hard-driving, blues-rock sound and image, and experimenting with making studio recordings.

During this time, the band experienced some lineup changes for the first time. Junstrom left and was briefly replaced byGreg T. Walker on bass. At the same time, Ricky Medlocke joined as a second drummer and vocalist. Medlocke grew up with the founding members of Lynyrd Skynyrd. Some versions of the band’s history also have Burns leaving the band for a short time during this period. The band played some shows with both Burns and Medlocke, using a dual-drummer approach similar to that of The Allman Brothers. In 1971, they made some recordings at the famous Muscle Shoals Sound Studio with Walker and Medlocke serving as the rhythm section, without the participation of Burns.

Medlocke and Walker left the band to play with another southern rock band, Blackfoot, and when the band made a second round of Muscle Shoals recordings in 1972, Burns was featured on drums and Leon Wilkeson was Larry Junstrom’s replacement on bass. Also in 1972, roadie Billy Powell became the keyboardist for the band. Medlocke later returned to play drums for Lynyrd Skynyrd. Medlocke and Walker did not appear on any album until 1978, when First and… Last, which collected the band’s recordings in the biennium 1971-1972, was posthumously released. This album was considered essential by most fans.[citation needed]

Peak years (1973–1977)[edit]

In 1972 the band (now Van Zant, Collins, Rossington, Burns, Wilkeson, and Powell) was discovered by musician, songwriter, and producer Al Kooper of Blood, Sweat & Tears, who had attended one of their shows at Funocchio’s in Atlanta. They changed the spelling of their name to Lynyrd Skynyrd[9] and Kooper signed them to his Sounds of the South label that was to be distributed and supported by MCA Records, producing their first album. Leon Wilkeson temporarily left the band during the early recording sessions for the album, only playing on two tracks. Wilkeson rejoined the band shortly after the album’s release at Van Zant’s invitation[citation needed] and is pictured on the album cover. Strawberry Alarm Clock guitarist Ed Kingjoined the band and played bass on the album (the only part, which Wilkeson had not already written being the solo section in “Simple Man“), along with some guitar work. King stayed in the band and switched solely to guitar after the album’s release, allowing the band to replicate the three-guitar mix used in the studio for their live performances. Released August 13, 1973,[10] the self-titled album with the subtitle “Pronounced Leh-nerd Skin-nerd” featured the hit song “Free Bird“, which received national airplay, eventually reaching No. 19 on the Billboard Hot 100 charts.

Ronnie Van Zant

Lynyrd Skynyrd’s fan base continued to grow rapidly throughout 1973, largely due to their opening slot on The Who‘s Quadrophenia tour in the United States. On their 1974 follow-up, Second Helping, the band successfully avoided any sophomore slump, with King, Collins and Rossington all collaborating with Van Zant on the songwriting. The album was the band’s breakthrough hit, and featured their most popular single, “Sweet Home Alabama” (#8 on the charts in August 1974), a response to Neil Young‘s “Southern Man“, and featuring some outstanding guitar work by King (Young and Van Zant were not rivals, but fans of each other’s music and good friends; Young even wrote the song “Powderfinger” for the band, but they never recorded it.[11] Van Zant, meanwhile, can be seen on the cover of Street Survivors and in concert wearing a Neil Young Tonight’s the Night t-shirt. The album reached No. 12 in 1974, eventually going multi-platinum. In July of that year, Lynyrd Skynyrd was one of the headline acts at The Ozark Music Festival at the Missouri State Fairgrounds in Sedalia, Missouri.

In January 1975, Burns left the band and was replaced by Kentucky native Artimus Pyle on drums. Lynyrd Skynyrd’s third album, Nuthin’ Fancy, was released the same year. The album had lower sales than its predecessor. Kooper and the band parted by mutual agreement after the raucous recording of the LP. Kooper was left with the tapes to complete the mix before release. Midway through the tour, Ed King left the band, citing tour exhaustion. In January 1976, backup singers Leslie HawkinsCassie Gaines and JoJo Billingsley(collectively known as The Honkettes) were added to the band, although they were not considered official members. Lynyrd Skynyrd’s fourth album Gimme Back My Bullets was released in the new year, but did not achieve the same success as the previous two albums. Van Zant and Collins both felt that the band was seriously missing the three-guitar attack that had been one of its early hallmarks. Although Skynyrd auditioned several guitarists, including such high-profile names as Leslie West, the solution was closer than they realized.

Soon after joining Skynyrd, Cassie Gaines began touting the guitar and songwriting prowess of her younger brother, Steve. The junior Gaines, who led his own band, Crawdad (which occasionally would perform Skynyrd’s “Saturday Night Special” in their set), was invited to audition onstage with Skynyrd at a concert in Kansas City on May 11, 1976. Liking what they heard, the group also jammed informally with the Oklahoma native several times, then invited him into the group in June. With Gaines on board, the newly reconstituted band recorded the double-live album One More from the Road at the Fox Theatre (Atlanta, Georgia) in Atlanta, and performed at the Knebworth festival, which also featured The Rolling Stones.

Both Collins and Rossington had serious car accidents over Labor Day weekend in 1976, which slowed the recording of the follow-up album and forced the band to cancel some concert dates. Rossington’s accident inspired the ominous “That Smell” – a cautionary tale about drug abuse that was clearly aimed towards him and at least one other band member. Rossington has admitted repeatedly that he was the “Prince Charming” of the song who crashed his car into an oak tree while drunk and stoned on Quaaludes. Van Zant, at least, was making a serious attempt to clean up his act and curtail the cycle of boozed-up brawling that was part of Skynyrd’s reputation.

1977’s Street Survivors turned out to be a showcase for guitarist/vocalist Steve Gaines, who had joined the band just a year earlier and was making his studio debut with them. Publicly and privately, Ronnie Van Zant marveled at the multiple talents of Skynyrd’s newest member, claiming that the band would “all be in his shadow one day”.[citation needed] Gaines’ contributions included his co-lead vocal with Van Zant on the co-written “You Got That Right” and the rousing guitar boogie “I Know a Little”, which he had written before he joined Skynyrd. So confident was Skynyrd’s leader of Gaines’ abilities that the album (and some concerts) featured Gaines delivering his self-penned bluesy “Ain’t No Good Life” – the only song in the pre-crash Skynyrd catalog to feature a lead vocalist other than Ronnie Van Zant. The album also included the hit singles “What’s Your Name” and “That Smell“. The band was poised for their biggest tour yet, with shows always highlighted by the iconic rock anthem “Free Bird”.[12] In November, the band was scheduled to fulfill Van Zant’s lifelong dream of headlining New York’s Madison Square Garden.

The song “Freebird” in the movie Freebird the Movie was actually filmed on July 2, 1977 at the Oakland Coliseum and not on July 4 as stated by Bill Graham and in the credits.[citation needed]

Plane crash (1977)[edit]

Following a performance at the Greenville Memorial Auditorium in Greenville, South Carolina, on October 20, 1977 the band boarded a chartered Convair CV-300 to Baton Rouge, Louisiana where they were scheduled to appear at LSU the following night. Due to a faulty engine, the airplane ran low on fuel and the pilots were diverted to the McComb-Pike County Airport. But the fuel was exhausted and they attempted an emergency landing before crashing in a heavily forested area five miles northeast of Gillsburg, Mississippi.[13][14] Ronnie Van Zant, Steve Gaines, Cassie Gaines, assistant road manager Dean Kilpatrick, pilot Walter McCreary and co-pilot William Gray were killed on impact; the other band members (Collins, Rossington, Wilkeson, Powell, Pyle, and Hawkins), tour manager Ron Eckerman,[15] and road crew suffered serious injuries.

The accident came just three days after the release of Street Survivors. Following the crash and the ensuing press, Street Survivors became the band’s second platinum album and reached No. 5 on the U.S. album chart. The single “What’s Your Name” reached No. 13 on the single airplay charts in January 1978. The original cover sleeve for Street Survivors had featured a photograph of the band, particularly Steve Gaines, engulfed in flames. Out of respect for the deceased (and at the request of Teresa Gaines, Steve’s widow), MCA Records withdrew the original cover and replaced it with a similar image of the band against a simple black background.[16] Thirty years later, for the deluxe CD version of Street Survivors, the original “flames” cover was restored.

Lynyrd Skynyrd disbanded after the tragedy, reuniting just once to perform an instrumental version of “Free Bird” at Charlie Daniels’ Volunteer Jam V in January 1979. Collins, Rossington, Powell and Pyle performed the song with Charlie Daniels and members of his band. Leon Wilkeson, who was still undergoing physical therapy for his badly broken left arm, was in attendance, along with Judy Van Zant, Teresa Gaines, JoJo Billingsley and Leslie Hawkins.

Hiatus (1977–1987)[edit]

Rossington, Collins, Wilkeson and Powell formed The Rossington-Collins Band, which released two albums between 1980 and 1983. Deliberately avoiding comparisons with Ronnie Van Zant as well as suggestions that this band was Lynyrd Skynyrd reborn, Rossington and Collins chose a woman, Dale Krantz, as lead vocalist. However, as an acknowledgment of their past, the band’s concert encore would always be an instrumental version of “Free Bird”. Rossington and Collins eventually had a falling out over the affections of Dale Krantz, whom Rossington married and with whom he formed the Rossington Band, which released two albums in the late 1980s and opened for the Lynyrd Skynyrd Tribute Tour in 1987–1988.

The other former members of Lynyrd Skynyrd continued to make music during the hiatus era. Billy Powell played keyboards in a Christian Rock band named Vision, touring with established Christian rocker Mylon LeFevre. During Vision concerts, Powell’s trademark keyboard talent was often spotlighted and he spoke about his conversion to Christianity after the near-fatal plane crash. Pyle formed The Artimus Pyle Band in 1982, which occasionally featured former Honkettes JoJo Billingsleyand Leslie Hawkins.

In 1980, Allen Collins’ wife Kathy died of a massive hemorrhage while miscarrying their third child. He formed the Allen Collins Band in 1983 from the remnants of the Rossington-Collins Band and released one tepidly-received album, but many around him believed that the guitarist’s heart just was not in it anymore. Most point to his wife’s death as the moment that Collins’ life began to spin out of control; he spent several years binging on drugs and alcohol. In 1986, Collins crashed his car while driving drunk near his home in Jacksonville, killing his girlfriend and leaving himself permanently paralyzed from the chest down. Collins eventually pled no contest to DUI manslaughter, but was not given a prison sentence since his injuries made it obvious that he would never drive or be a danger to society again.[citation needed]

Return (1987–present)[edit]

In 1987, Lynyrd Skynyrd reunited for a full-scale tour with five major members of the pre-crash band: crash survivors Gary Rossington, Billy Powell, Leon Wilkeson and Artimus Pyle, along with guitarist Ed King, who had left the band two years before the crash. Ronnie Van Zant’s younger brother, Johnny, took over as the new lead singer and primary songwriter. Due to Collins’ paralysis from a 1986 car accident, he was only able to participate as the musical director, choosing Randall Hall, his former bandmate in the Allen Collins Band, as his stand-in. As part of his plea deal, Collins would be wheeled out onstage each night to explain to the audience why he could no longer perform (usually before the performance of “That Smell”, which had been partially directed at him). Collins was stricken with pneumonia in 1989 and died on January 23, 1990.

The reunited band was meant to be a one-time tribute to the original lineup, captured on the double-live album Southern by the Grace of God: Lynyrd Skynyrd Tribute Tour 1987. The fact that the band chose to continue after the 1987 tribute tour caused legal problems for the survivors, as Judy Van Zant Jenness and Teresa Gaines Rapp (widows of Ronnie and Steve, respectively) sued the others for violating an agreement made shortly after the plane crash, stating that they would not “exploit” the Skynyrd name for profit. As part of the settlement, Jenness and Rapp collect nearly 30% of the band’s touring revenues (representing the shares their husbands would have earned had they lived), and hold a proviso which forces any band touring as Lynyrd Skynyrd to include at least three from the pre-crash era.

The reconstituted Lynyrd Skynyrd has gone through a large number of lineup changes and continues to record and tour today. One by one, the members of the pre-crash band have left, been forced out, or have died. Artimus Pyle left the band in 1991 and his place has been taken by a variety of drummers since, with Michael Cartellone finally becoming his permanent replacement. Randall Hall was replaced by Mike Estes in 1993. Ed King had to take a break from touring in 1996. In his absence, he was replaced by Hughie Thomasson. The band did not let King rejoin after he recovered.[citation needed]At the same time, Mike Estes was replaced by Rickey Medlocke, who was briefly the second drummer and a vocalist (playing also mandolin) with the band in the early 1970s. Leon Wilkeson, Skynyrd’s bassist since 1972, was found dead in his hotel room on July 27, 2001; his death was found to be due to emphysema and chronic liver disease. He was replaced in 2001 byEan Evans.

The remaining members released a double collection album called Thyrty, which had songs from the original lineup to the present. Lynyrd Skynyrd also released a live DVD of their Vicious Cycle Tour and on June 22, 2004, Lynyrd Skynyrd released the album Lynyrd Skynyrd Lyve: The Vicious Cycle Tour. On December 10, 2004, Lynyrd Skynyrd did a show forCMTCrossroads, a concert featuring country duo Montgomery Gentry and other genres of music. In the beginning of 2005Hughie Thomasson left the band to reform his disbanded Southern Rock band Outlaws. Thomasson died in his sleep on September 9, 2007 of an apparent heart attack in his home in Brooksville, Florida. He was 55 years old.

On February 5, 2005, Lynyrd Skynyrd did a Super Bowl party in Jacksonville with special guests 3 Doors DownJo Dee MessinaCharlie Daniels and Ronnie and Johnny Van Zant’s brother Donnie Van Zant of 38 Special. On February 13 of that year Lynyrd Skynyrd did a tribute to Southern Rock on the Grammy Awards with Gretchen WilsonTim McGrawKeith Urbanand Dickey Betts. In the summer of 2005, lead singer Johnny Van Zant had to have surgery on his vocal cord to have a polyp removed. He was told not to sing for three months. On September 10, 2005, Lynyrd Skynyrd performed without Johnny Van Zant at the Music Relief Concert for the victims of Hurricane Katrina, with Kid Rock standing in for Johnny. In December 2005, Johnny Van Zant returned to sing for Lynyrd Skynyrd. The band performed live at Freedom Hall in Louisville, Kentucky, as a part of their 2007 tour. The concert was recorded in high definition for HDNet and premiered on December 1, 2007.

The band in 2008

Mark “Sparky” Matejka, formerly of the country music band Hot Apple Pie, joined Lynyrd Skynyrd in 2006 as Thomasson’s replacement. On November 2, 2007, the band performed at the University of Florida’sGator Growl, the world’s largest student-run pep rally, in Ben Hill Griffin Stadium – also known as “The Swamp”. The event’s 50,000-person attendance marked the largest crowd that Lynyrd Skynyrd had ever played in front of in the United States, until the July 2008 Bama Jam in Enterprise, Alabama where more than 111,000 people were in attendance.[17]

On January 28, 2009, keyboardist Billy Powell died of a suspected heart attack at age 56 at his home near Jacksonville, Florida. No autopsy was ever carried out. Powell’s death left Gary Rossington as the sole pre-crash member still in the band, unless Rickey Medlocke’s brief stint with the band in the early 1970s is counted.

On March 17, 2009, it was announced that Skynyrd had signed a worldwide deal with Roadrunner Records, in association with their label, Loud & Proud Records, and released their new album God & Guns on September 29 of that year. They toured Europe and the United States in 2009 with Peter Keys of the 420 Funk Mob on keyboards and Robert Kearns of The Bottle Rockets on bass (in place of Ean Evans, who died of cancer at age 48 on May 6, 2009, at his home in Columbus, Mississippi).[18] Scottish rock band Gun performed as special guests for the UK leg of Skynyrd’s tour in 2010.[19]

In addition to the tour, Skynyrd appeared at the Sean Hannity Freedom Concert series in late 2010. Hannity had been actively promoting the God & Guns album, frequently playing portions of the track “That Ain’t My America” on his radio show. The tour is titled “Rebels and Bandoleros”. The band continued to tour throughout 2011, playing alongside ZZ Top and The Doobie Brothers.

On May 2, 2012, the band announced the impending release of a new studio album, Last of a Dyin’ Breed, along with a North American and European tour.[20] On August 21, 2012, Last of a Dyin’ Breed was released. In celebration of its release, the band did four autograph signings throughout the southeast.[21]

While promoting the album on CNN on September 9, 2012, members of the band talked about its discontinued use of Confederate imagery.[22] In September 2012, the band briefly did not display the Confederate Flag, which had for years been a part of their stage show, because they did not want to be associated with racists who had adopted the flag. After protests from fans they reversed this decision, noting it is part of their Southern American heritage and states rightssymbolism.[23]

Recognition[edit]

Honors[edit]

In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine ranked the group No. 95 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.[24][25]

On November 28, 2005, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame announced that Lynyrd Skynyrd would be inducted alongside Black SabbathBlondieMiles Davis, and the Sex Pistols. They were inducted in the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in Manhattan on March 13, 2006.

On March 13, 2006, Lynyrd Skynyrd was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at the 21st annual induction ceremony. The inductees included Ronnie Van ZantAllen CollinsGary RossingtonEd KingSteve GainesBilly Powell,Leon WilkesonBob Burns, and Artimus Pyle (no post-crash members of the band were inducted, nor were any of theHonkettes). The current version of Skynyrd, augmented by King, Pyle, Burns and former Honkettes JoJo Billingsley, and Leslie Hawkins, performed “Sweet Home Alabama” and “Free Bird” at the ceremony, which was also attended by Judy Van Zant Jenness and Ronnie’s two daughters, Teresa Gaines Rapp and her daughter Corinna, Allen Collins’ daughters, and Leon Wilkeson’s mother and son.

In October 2008, Lynyrd Skynyrd’s song “Free Bird“‘s solo was named the 3rd greatest guitar solo by Guitar World. In September 2010, Lynyrd Skynyrd was named No. 77 VH1‘s 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.

Tributes[edit]

Members[edit]

Current members
Current touring members
  • Dale Krantz-Rossington – backing vocals (1987–present)
  • Carol Chase – backing vocals (1996–present)

Discography[edit]

Studio albums[edit]

Date of release Title Billboard peak RIAA cert. Label
August 13, 1973 (Pronounced ‘Lĕh-‘nérd ‘Skin-‘nérd) 27 2× Platinum MCA
April 15, 1974 Second Helping 12 2× Platinum
March 24, 1975 Nuthin’ Fancy 9 Platinum
February 2, 1976 Gimme Back My Bullets 20 Gold
October 17, 1977 Street Survivors 5 2× Platinum
June 11, 1991 Lynyrd Skynyrd 1991 64 Atlantic
February 16, 1993 The Last Rebel 64
August 9, 1994 Endangered Species Capricorn
April 29, 1997 Twenty 97 CMC
August 10, 1999 Edge of Forever 96
September 12, 2000 Christmas Time Again 38 Sanctuary
May 20, 2003 Vicious Cycle 30
September 29, 2009 God & Guns 18 Roadrunner
August 21, 2012 Last of a Dyin’ Breed 14

References[edit]

  1. Jump up^

    Lynyrd Skynyrd

Finca Calamay English Inmersion Programs

Hacienda Calamay whatsapp 3177365426

Finca Calamay is a Finca Hacienda Resort  With an Extension of ( 24 ac) (30,951 ft2 ) located in San Sebastian De Mariquita Tolima Colombia ( South America ) .

The Hacienda is sorrounded by all kinds of fruit trees like mangos mangas,pineapples,lemmons,bananas, mangostinos, papayas 2 rivers 1 lake and plenty of water to grow fish ( cachama and mojarra ) . And is visited from people  all over the world as well as local tourists.

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San Sebastian de Mariquita is a town and municipality in the Tolima department ofColombia, about 150 km (93 mi) northwest of Bogotá. This town and municipality contains several important Spanish settlements that were located here due to its vicinity to the Magdalena River. Today, Mariquita is frequented by tourists from the capital visiting attractions like the Medina Waterfalls (Las Cataratas de Medina) and themint (casa de la moneda). The Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada is buried here. Today it is home to large hotels and haciendas, among them La Villa de los Caballeros, Finca Calamay

The population of the municipality was 32,642 as of the 2005 census

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http://www.tolimaturismo.gov.co/

 

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http://www.tolimaturismo.gov.co/index.php?option=com_phocagallery&view=category&id=18:mariquita

 

The Mutis route is a fascinating journey based around the Magdalena valley. During this fieldtrip, we will learn about many different aspects of Colombian history, such as the creation of the railway, commercial activities along the Magdalena River and the lifestyle of the first inhabitants of our country in the 18th and 19th centuries. The Mutis Route allows students to find out about the traditional architecture of this period as well as learning about momentous events such as the Armero catastrophe.

Finally, we will find out about the type of botanical work carried out by José Celestino Mutis during the Royal Botanical Expedition in the New Kingdom of Granada. We will also get to know the places where Mutis collected many of his botanical samples and will learn how botanical scientists collect their plant materials as well as the importance of collecting samples as a tool for building scientific knowledge.

 

JOSE CELESTINO MUTIS

He was born in Cádiz and baptized with the name José Celestino Bruno Mutis y Bosio. He began his medical studies at the College of Surgery in Cádiz, where he also studied physics, chemistry and botany. He graduated in medicine from the University of Seville on May 2, 1755.

On July 5, 1757 he received his doctorate in medicine. From 1757 to 1760 he was interim professor of anatomy in Madrid. During those same years he continued to study botany at the Migas Calientes Botanical Gardens (now the Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid), and also astronomy and philosopher mathematics.

After three years he decided to leave for America, as the private physician of the new viceroy of New GranadaPedro Messía de la Cerda. He sailed on September 7, 1760, arriving at Santa Fe de Bogotá on February 24, 1761. During the long transatlantic passage he began writing his Diario de Observaciones, which he continued until 1791.

From his arrival in the Viceroyalty, Mutis concentrated on his botanical studies, beginning work on an herbal and investigating for cinchona, which was considered a panacea for the treatment of all kinds of diseases. He wrote El Arcano de la Quina.

Botanical expedition[edit]

Beginning in 1763, Mutis proposed to the king that he sponsor an expedition to study the flora and fauna of the region. He had to wait 20 years for the authorization, but in 1783 the king authorized his expedition (one of three royal botanical expeditions to the New World at about that time). In the interim, Mutis concentrated on commercial and mineralogical projects, not neglecting medicine. He also studied the social and economic conditions of the viceroyalty, and continued to expand his collection of flora and fauna. On December 19, 1772 he was ordained a priest. He was in regular correspondence with scientists in Spain and elsewhere in Europe, particularly Carolus Linnaeus.

Mutis led the Royal Botanical Expedition, established in 1783, for 25 years. It explored some 8,000 km2 in a range of climates, using the Río Magdalena for access to the interior. He developed a meticulous methodology that included the harvesting of the samples in the field together with detailed descriptions, including data on the surroundings of each species and its utility. Hundreds of plants were discovered and described. More than 8,000 plates, plus maps, correspondence, notes and manuscripts were sent to Spain. His museum consisted of 24,000 dried plants, 5,000 drawings of plants by his pupils, and a collection of woods, shells, resins, minerals, and skins. These treasures arrived safely at Madrid in 105 boxes, and the plants, manuscripts, and drawings were sent to the botanical gardens, where they were relegated to a tool-house.

The Royal Botanical Expedition headquarters moved in two different occasions. Initially it was based on the municipality of La Mesa de Juan Diaz (Department of Cundinamarca), then in November 1783 it was moved to Mariquita (Department of Tolima). Finally in 1791 it was moved to Santa Fe de Bogota.

Much of the work was wasted because the results remained unedited and unanalyzed. Also, the collation between the notes and the plates was lost during the transfer to Spain. His work on the species and varieties of Chinchona had lasting influence.

He determined the longitude of Bogotá by the observation of an eclipse of a satellite of Jupiter and was a major influence on the construction of the National Astronomical Observatory.

In March 1762, at the inauguration of the chair of mathematics at the Colegio del Rosario, he expounded the principles of the Copernican system and of the experimental method of science, leading to a confrontation with the church. In 1774 he had to defend the teaching of the principles of Copernicus, as well as natural philosophy and modern, Newtonian physics and mathematics, before the Inquisition.

In 1784, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Alexander von Humboldt visited Mutis in 1801, during his expedition to America. Humboldt stayed with Mutis for two months, and greatly admired his botanical collection.

Mutis died in Bogotá on September 2, 1808, at age 76, a victim of apoplexy. Because much of his botanical work was lost or unpublished, he is known to history not as a great scientist, but as a great promoter of science and knowledge.[1]

Works[edit]

  • Botany: He studied the flora of his surroundings, and produced a marvelous collection of plates of Colombian plants that are now located in the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid.
  • Linguistics: He studied the indigenous languages of the area. By order of King Charles III, he developed a series of elementary vocabularies of various languages (about 100 words in each language). King Charles was responding to a request from Tsarina Catherine the Great to provide vocabularies of all the languages spoken in his realms, in order to develop a monumental dictionary of all the languages of the world. The dictionary was in fact published, but the compilers published it in alphabetical order, making it nearly impossible to consult.
  • Other sciences, including important contributions to industrial processes, like silver mining and the distillation of rum.

Legacy[edit]

 

Street named after Celestino Mutis, in CadizSpain

José Celestino Mutis banknote.jpg 

His likeness is well known to Spaniards, because his image was used on the old banknotes of 2,000 pesetas. This was the first in a series of banknotes commemorating Spain in America. On the reverse was a drawing of the Mutisia orchid, named in his honor.

José Celestino Mutis Botanical Gardens, a park and center of scientific investigation, is named in his honor in Bogotá. It includes climate-controlled exhibits of the flora in all climate zones of Colombia. There is also an exhibit of 5,000 Colombian orchids, one of Colombia’s most extensive.

The official name of the town of Bahia Solano on Colombia’s Pacific coast in the Department of Choco is Puerto Mutis, in honor of Jose Celestino Mutis. The airport there is Aeropuerto Jose Celestino Mutis, as well. This town is located north of the city of Buenaventura and north of the San Juan River, the largest river in South America to empty into the Pacific Ocean.

Other expeditions[edit]

The four expeditions authorized by King Charles III to the Spanish colonies were those of Hipólito Ruiz López and José Antonio Pavón to Peru and Chile (1777–88); Mutis to New Granada (1783–1808); Juan de Cuéllar to the Philippines (1786–97); and Martín Sessé y Lacasta to New Spain (1787–1803).

Nevado del Ruiz

The Nevado del Ruiz (Spanish pronunciation: [neβaðo ðel ˈrwis]), also known as La Mesa de Herveo[4] (English: Mesa of Herveo (the nearby town)), or Kumanday in the language of the local pre-Columbianindigenous people,[5] is a volcano located on the border of thedepartments of Caldas and Tolima in Colombia, about 129 kilometers (80 mi) west of the capital city Bogotá. It is a stratovolcano, composed of many layers of lava alternating with hardened volcanic ash and otherpyroclastic rocks. Nevado del Ruiz has been active for about two million years, since the early Pleistocene or late Pliocene epoch, with three major eruptive periods. The current volcanic cone formed during the present eruptive period, which began 150 thousand years ago.

The volcano usually generates Plinian eruptions, which produce swift-moving currents of hot gas and rock called pyroclastic flows. These eruptions often cause massive lahars (mud and debris flows), which pose a threat to human life and the environment. The impact of such an eruption is increased as the hot gas and lava melts the mountain’s snowcap, adding large quantities of water to the flow. On November 13, 1985, a small eruption produced an enormous lahar that buried and destroyed the town of Armero in Tolima, causing an estimated 25,000 deaths. This event later became known as the Armero tragedy—the deadliest lahar in recorded history. Similar but less deadly incidents occurred in 1595 and 1845, consisting of a small explosive eruption followed by a large lahar.

The volcano is part of Los Nevados National Natural Park, which also contains several other volcanoes. The summit of Nevado del Ruiz is covered by large glaciers, although these have retreated significantly since 1985 because of global warming. The volcano continues to pose a threat to the nearby towns and villages, and it is estimated that up to 500,000 people could be at risk from lahars from future eruptions.

 

Eruption (1985)[edit]

Main article: Armero tragedy

Beginning November 1984, geologists observed an increasing level of seismic activity near Nevado del Ruiz.[27] Other signs of a forthcoming eruption included increased fumarole activity, deposition of sulfur on the summit of the volcano, and smallphreatic eruptions. In the latter, hot magma came in contact with water, resulting in explosions as the water was almost instantly turned into steam. The most notable of these events was an ash ejection on September 11, 1985.[27] The activity of the volcano decreased in October 1985.[27] The most likely explanation of the events is that new magma rose into the volcanic edifice before September 1985.[27]

 

Before the eruption in 1985

An Italian volcanological mission analyzed gas samples from fumaroles along the Arenas crater floor and proved them to be a mixture of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide, indicating a direct release of magma into the surface environment. The mission’s report, delivered on October 22, 1985, judged the risk of lahars to be very high. The report proposed various simple preparedness techniques to local authorities.[29]

In November 1985, volcanic activity once again increased[27] as magma neared the surface. The volcano began releasing increasing quantities of gases rich in sulfur dioxide and elementary sulfur. The water content of the fumaroles’ gases decreased, and water springs in the vicinity of Nevado del Ruiz became enriched in magnesiumcalcium and potassium, which were leached from the magma.[27] The thermodynamic equilibration (stationary heat energy) temperatures, corresponding to the chemical composition of the discharged gases, were from 200 °C (400 °F) to 600 °C (1,000 °F). The extensive degassing of the magma caused pressure to build up inside the volcano, which eventually resulted in the explosive eruption.[30]

Inmersion Programs

Immersion Programs are encouraged in several states by state adoption of English-only legislation. In this program, the classes and related textare primarily in English. Children with very low English proficiency are put in ESL (English-as-a-Second-Language) classes (see Gersten, 1985; Rossell & Baker, 1996).

There are two kinds of immersion programs: “submersion” or “structured”. The first kind is also called “sink or swim” because it does not provide any kind of aid for the children to learn English. Structured English immersion helps the students with better-planed classes focusing on building their vocabulary. It also uses direct and intense instructions to help them learn the language faster and be able to join the regular classes.

On the other hand, most immersion programs are only focused on developing English-language proficiency through direct contact with the language. They are not so concerned about how well the students are learning the material. Their goal is to have a homogenous group of students being taught in English. This approach does not include teaching ELL’s children to maintain their cultural and linguistic heritage.

The purpose of these English only programs is to immerse the students in the American way of life starting with the language. Educators believe that by doing this the students will assimilate the culture and the language faster. All of the students are taught as if they have the same background and values. In reality, most classrooms in areas where the number of immigrants is large have a variety of different cultures and nationalities all together in one classroom.

Students enrolled in these programs are expected to learn English as best as they can with the few resources that are available for them. What happens most of the time is that some students are not able to keep up with the majority of the class and lose their motivation. Some drop out of school while others graduate with very low grades and even lower chances of having a good future.

Reptilians Running the U.S. Government

 

As 12 million Americans “know,” the United States government is run by lizard people (or, to be scientifically accurate, reptilians). But they never said whichmembers of the government are the reptilians. So we’re here to help.

 

Piecing together the latest groundbreaking research being conducted by commenters at conspiracy websites, we’ve been able to isolate a number of prominent individuals who possess reptilian-compatible bloodlines. As “ufochick”writes at DavidIcke.com (Icke is a prominent reptile theorist, as evidenced by his book at right), even if a person has compatible bloodlines, “they will not become a reptilian unless a reptilian entity inhabits their physical body.”

Or maybe it isn’t important. UnderstandingEvil.com describes how to tell if you’re “under assault” by reptilians; “Protector of Mankind” writes at Alien-UFOs.com that you can be a “reptilian/human hybrid.” It sort of varies. But according to Icke, this is how it works.

OBAMAS REPTILIAN SECRET SERVICE

Reptilians (also called reptoids,[1] reptiloids, or draconians) are purported reptilianhumanoids that play a prominent role in science fiction, as well as modern ufology andconspiracy theories.[2][3][4] The idea of reptilians on Earth was popularized by David Icke, a conspiracy theorist who says shape-shifting reptilian people control our world by taking on human form and gaining political power to manipulate our societies. Icke has claimed on multiple occasions that many of the world leaders are, or are possessed by, reptilians ruling the world.

According to British writer David Icke, 5- to 12-foot (1.5–3.7 m) tall, blood-drinking, shape-shiftingreptilian humanoids from the Alpha Draconis star system, now hiding in underground bases, are the force behind a worldwide conspiracy against humanity.[7] He contends that most of the world’s leaders are related to these reptilians, including George W. Bush of the United States, and Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.[8] Icke’s conspiracy theories now have supporters in 47 countries and he has given lectures to crowds of up to 6,000.[9][10] American writer Vicki Santillano included it in her list of the 10 most popular conspiracy theories, describing it as the “wackiest theory” she had encountered.[11] A poll of Americans in 2013 by Public Policy Polling showed that 4% of registered voters believed in David Icke’s ideas.[12]

REPTILIAN ILLUMINATI HYBRIDS FBI AGENTS 

Politics[edit]

In the closely fought 2008 U.S. Senate election between comedian and commentator Al Franken and incumbent SenatorNorm Coleman, one of the ballots challenged by Coleman included a vote for Franken with “Lizard People” written in the space provided for write-in candidates.[13] Lucas Davenport who later claimed to have written the gag ballot, said, “I don’t know if you’ve heard the conspiracy theory about the Lizard Men; a friend of mine, we didn’t like the candidates, so we were at first going to write in ‘revolution’, because we thought that was good and to the point. And then, we thought ‘the Lizard People’ would be even funnier.”[14]

Evil reptilian kitten-eater from another planet” was a pejorative used to refer to then Ontario Liberal Party opposition leaderDalton McGuinty in a press release disseminated by the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario on September 12, 2003, during the provincial election campaign in OntarioCanada.

In February 2011, on the Opie and Anthony radio show, the comedian Louis C.K. asked former U.S. Secretary of DefenseDonald Rumsfeld a number of times if he and Dick Cheney were lizard people who enjoyed the taste of human flesh. Rumsfeld did not answer the question. Louis C.K. interpreted Rumsfeld’s refusal to answer as an admission and further suggested that those who are lizard people cannot lie about it; when asked if they are lizards, they either have to avoid answering the question or say yes.[15]

On March 4, 2013, a video depicting a security agent with unusual features guarding a speech by U.S. President Barack Obama was spotlighted in a Wired report about shapeshifting reptilian humanoids, leading to a tongue-in-cheek response from chief National Security Council spokeswoman Caitlin Hayden that “any alleged program to guard the president with aliens or robots would likely have to be scaled back or eliminated in the sequester.”[16]

Are Reptilians Controlling Our Planet?
Unfortunately, this is precisely what is believed to be going on.  Reptilians came to Earth for its precious metals (like
other beings looking for natural resources). Icke argues that the Anunnaki came specifically for “monoatomic gold,” a
mineral he says can increase the carrying capacity of the nervous system ten thousand fold. After ingesting it, the
Anunnaki are able to process vast amounts of information, speed up trans-dimensional travel, and shape shift from
reptilian to human form. They use human fear, guilt, and aggression as energy in a similar way, part of the reason they
organize human conflict.  The more negative emotion we emit, the more the reptilians absorb: Thus we have the
encouragement of wars, human genocide, the mass slaughter of animals, sexual perversions which create highly
charged negative energy, and black magic ritual and sacrifice which takes place on a scale that will stagger those who
have not studied the subject.  Looking back at history we are able to account for all of these kinds of events; however,
today we can all agree that kings, lords, and deity like leaders haven’t the ability to control the mass populations of
today, like they once ruled in the past.   That is why Reptilian Aliens saw the opportunity in controlling our modern day
society through the manipulation of wealth, wars, and power.  Many would agree that the only way to truly have such an
influence would be to have some kind of “overseeing entity” that could influence any aspect of today’s modern age.

A secret society, a powerful ability to control banking systems, governments, and most importantly PEOPLE!  Reptilian
Aliens have always been known for their “Agenda,” but many  who seek the answer to the question of that very agenda
seem oversee the evidence that the control and manipulation has already began in the very center of our own human
power structure.   Perhaps through your research you have come across statements that Presidents, actors, and/or
authors are Reptilian Aliens?  The truth may lead us to see that these people would be the perfect solution for setting up
a One World Order and deceive us through the very conspiracy theories that we know about today.  

 

Air Plane Abducted by UFO Caught on Tape

Since 1947 our Government has been lying to us about aliens. Everyone sees them, UFOs are everywhere, in every nation. They are a threat to our sovereignty as a nation and as a world

Now a whole entire airplane has vanished into thin air.  A Malaysia Airlines flight carrying 239 souls lost contact with air traffic control and disappeared. Known as Flight MH370, it is a B777-200 aircraft heading to Beijing, China from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The Associated Press reports that the flight lost contact somewhere over Vietnam.

There were no reports of bad weather and no sign of why the plane would vanished from radar screens almost an hour after it took off. There are reports of two oil slicks off the coast but absolutely no wreckage has yet to be found. Where did the plane go?

Malaysia UFOThere is only one possible answer. Aliens.

Aliens have been abducting ships and planes in the Burmuda Triangle for as long as civilized people have been sailing those seas. Could the aliens have decided to abduct yet another plane form a different place?

“We are not ruling out any possibilities,” Malaysia Airlines CEO Ahmad Jauhari Yahya told a news conference full of journalists.

Now it is being reported that atleast two of the people on the plane had stolen passports. The passenger manifest issued by the airline included the names of two Europeans, Austrian Christian Kozel and Italian Luigi Maraldi, both of which were not on the plane, according to their foreign ministries. Both men reported their passports stolen in Thailand in 2013. There were no indications of sabotage nor claims of a terrorist attack, but Thailand is known as a hotbed of alien activity.

So once again, the only possible cause is Aliens.

So will this finally drive our Government to admit that there really is an alien race here on our soil and in our air? Will Obama finally stop asking the Russians to fly us to space and reinvest in NASA so that we can fight this Alien scourge? Calls to the White House were not returned.

 

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